Lorenzo Kristov

In my status as an independent consultant I am continuing to work in areas I began while employed at the California Independent System Operator, areas which are encompassed by the broad heading of electric system evolution toward an integrated-decentralized structure. Rapid advances in distribution-connected energy resources (DER) and scalable control systems, combined with the need of local governments and communities to develop local energy systems for greater resilience and reduced environmental impacts, are driving the electric industry toward a more decentralized structure. Yet although these local systems will be capable of islanded operation to withstand the impacts of major external disruptions, they will remain connected to the bulk electric system most of the time to engage in wholesale transactions. Hence an "integrated-decentralized" structure. Some areas of focus within this broad heading are: community-level energy systems; integration of energy and municipal services to create resilient communities; whole-system architecture for the integrated-decentralized future grid; transmission-distribution interface coordination with high DER; redesign of wholesale spot markets for a zero marginal cost supply fleet; distribution system operator (DSO) models; distribution-level energy markets; new utility business models.